Glaucoma(Kala paani) is irreversible damage of the Optic Nerve caused by increased intraocular pressure,a minority may have damage even with normal Intra Ocular Pressure.
Glaucoma may have no warning symptoms. If ignored, it can lead to blindness,Occasionally patients may have
The eye Doctor first checks the patient's central vision using an eye chart.
The fronts of the eyes are examined using a special microscope called a slit lamp.
The pressure inside the eyes is checked using an instrument called a tonometer.
The optic nerves are examined for any damage; this may require dilation of the pupils to ensure an adequate examination of the optic nerves.
The peripheral vision may be checked, typically by using an automated visual field Analyzer(Perimetry) The drainage channels in the eyes may be examined using a painless technique called gonioscopy, which involves the use of a special contact lens that is placed onto the surface of the eye that has been numbed with an eye drop.
Eye pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Normal eye pressure ranges from 10 to 21 mm Hg. When a person's pressure is higher than 21 mm Hg, they are at an increased risk for developing glaucoma. Some people can tolerate pressures slightly higher than normal without developing glaucoma. This is called ocular hypertension. If your eye doctor diagnoses ocular hypertension, it does not mean that you have glaucoma, but it does mean that you are at a higher risk for developing the condition and you should be examined routinely to ensure no permanent optic nerve damage and vision loss occur.
On the other hand, some people with normal pressures can still go on to develop optic nerve damage and to lose vision. This is called normal (or low) tension glaucoma.
The frequency of checkups depends on the severity of one's glaucoma. If the person is a low-risk glaucoma suspect, they may only need to be examined on an annual basis. For more severe glaucoma, examinations may need to be done monthly, or possibly even more frequently, until the glaucoma stabilizes. Once the glaucoma is stable, examinations every 3 to 4 months are usually appropriate.
Most types of glaucoma cannot be prevented. While vision loss due to glaucomatous optic nerve damage cannot be recovered, with appropriate treatment, further vision loss can usually be prevented. Those types of secondary glaucoma resulting from eye injuries or certain diseases, such as diabetes and uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure), may be preventable or even avoidable with certain measures, such as protective eyewear to avoid eye injuries and proper management of diabetes and uncontrolled hypertension.
One type of glaucoma, acute angle-closure glaucoma, can sometimes be prevented if a laser procedure is performed prior to its onset. To determine if a person is at risk for acute angle-closure glaucoma, they should see an ophthalmologist for an eye examination.