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  • Corneal Services
    Corneal Services

What are CORNEAL Diseases?

The cornea is the clear tissue at the front and center of the eye. Its translucency permits light to pass into the eye, through the pupil and on to the retina at the back of the eye. Its curvature focuses (refracts) the light.

Corneal eye disease is the fourth most common cause of blindness (after cataracts, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and affects more than 10 million people worldwide.*

Symptoms of Corneal Diseases

  • Blurred Vision occurs with any disease affecting either the clarity or the curvature of the cornea
  • Pain, sometimes quite severe, occurs if the illness affects the nerves in and around the cornea.
  • Irritation and light sensitivity are common in many disorders affecting the surface of the cornea.

Corneal Disorders

Corneal Ulcers

A corneal ulcer, Abscess typically occurs as a painful, red eye, with mild to severe eye discharge and reduced vision.The condition results from a localized infection of the cornea, similar to an abscess.


Normally, the cornea has a dome shape, like a ball. Sometimes, however, the structure of the cornea is just not strong enough to hold this round shape and the cornea bulges outward like a cone.

Corneal Dystrophy

Corneal dystrophies are a group of genetic, often progressive, eye disorders in which abnormal material often accumulates in the clear (transparent) outer layer of the eye (cornea).

Bullous Keratopathy

Bullous keratopathy is a condition in which the cornea becomes permanently swollen. This occurs because the inner layer of the cornea, the endothelium, has been damaged and is not pumping fluid properly.

Corneal Diagnostics

Corneal Diagnostics

Aayush Eye Clinic is a comprehensive eye care facility providing full spectrum eye care, including the diagnosis and monitoring of both chronic and acute eye diseases of the cornea

A thorough eye examination is carried out using the below mentioned equipment to determine if patients have any of the following disorders:
  1. Refractive surgery: To screen candidates for normal corneal shape, patterns and ruling out suspicious or Keratoconic patterns
  2. Keratoconus: Early screening of Keratoconus suspects is one of the most useful roles of topography
  3. Post surgery astigmatism: Post cataract surgery and post Keratoplasty corneal astigmatism can be studied with the topographer
  4. Surgical planning in cases with astigmatism: Limbal relaxing incisions and other methods of topography guided incision placement are used by surgeons to reduce post-operative astigmatism
  5. Effect of corneal and ocular surface disorders: Disorders such as pterygium, limbaldermoidlocalised corneal scars can cause a change in the corneal topography and thus the monitoring is very crucial
  6. Other uses: Contact lens fitting, incision placement and intra-stromal ring placement in Keratoconus, monitoring of ocular v/s corneal wavefront


Keratometry is done with Nidek ARK 510A, Unicos URK800, Manual Keratometry-Bausch and Lomb


Tomey TMS4-Placido based technology, Oculus Pentacam Oculyzer –Scheimpflug technology for Topography

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Quantel Medical Ultra sonic Pachymetry

Surgical Management

Surgical Management

  • C3R- Corneal Collagen Cross-linking with Riboflavin.

      Ultraviolet light is used to promote increased cross-linking between collagen fibres within the cornea .Strengthening the cornea by cross-linking its building blocks (collagen) increases the rigidity and can arrest progression of keratoconus and has also been reported to reverse partially the corneal steepening that has already taken place.

  • Corneal Grafting

      A cornea transplant replaces diseased or scarred corneal tissue with healthy tissue from an organ donor. There are two main types of corneal transplants: traditional, full thickness cornea transplant (also known as penetrating Keratoplasty or PK) and back layer cornea transplant (also known as endothelial Keratoplasty, or EK).

      A graft replaces central corneal tissue, damaged due to disease or eye injury, with healthy corneal tissue donated from a local eye bank. An unhealthy cornea affects your vision by scattering or distorting light and causing glare and blurred vision. A cornea transplant may be necessary to restore your functional vision.



The changes to the cornea can make it impossible for the eye to focus without eyeglasses or contact lenses. In fact, a corneal transplant may be needed to restore vision if the condition is severe. Laser vision correction surgery -- LASIK or PRK – can be dangerous for people with Keratoconus. Anyone with even a small degree of keratoconus should not have LASIK surgery.
Typically, an eyecare professional will treat Early stage keratoconus with contact lenses or glasses addressing the early vision correction needs of the patient. In later stages, rigid gas permeable contact lenses are often recommended. These lenses are used to improve one's vision and to brace the bulge in the cornea. In advanced cases, where the patient can no longer achieve adequate functional vision with contact lenses, corneal transplant surgery may be necessary.
Cross-linking is a medical procedure that combines the use of ultra-violet light and riboflavin eye drops.
Its use in Keratoconus is as first-line treatment to reduce and stop Keratoconus in the early phase of the condition, and to treat the progressive vision loss that occurs which can lead to corneal transplantation.
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